Gentendo

A Forum For Both Sega and Nintendo Fans
HomePortalCalendarFAQSearchMemberlistUsergroupsRegisterLog in
Welcome, Guest.
Not registered? Sign up and become a part of our community today!

Share | 
 

 Petroleum exploration

View previous topic View next topic Go down 
AuthorMessage
wangrong



Posts : 189
Registration date : 2010-10-10

PostSubject: Petroleum exploration   Mon Nov 29, 2010 1:01 am

The largest current end-use of caesium is in caesium formate-based drilling fluids for the extractive oil industry.[citation needed] Aqueous solutions of caesium formate (HCOO-Cs+)—made by reacting caesium hydroxide with formic acid—were developed in the mid-1990s for use as oil well drilling and completion fluids. The function of caesium formate as a drilling fluid is to lubricate drill bits, to bring rock cuttings to the surface, and to maintain pressure on the formation during drilling of the well; as completion fluid (which refers to the emplacement of control hardware after drilling but prior to production) is to maintain the pressure.[6]
The high density of the caesium formate brine (up to 2.3 g·cm−3, or 19.2 pounds per gallon),[61] coupled with the relatively benign nature of most caesium compounds, reduces the requirement for toxic high-density suspended solids in the drilling fluid—a significant technological, engineering and environmental advantage. Unlike the components of many other heavy liquids, caesium formate is relatively environment-friendly.[61] The caesium formate brine can be blended with potassium and sodium formates to decrease the density of the fluids down to that of water (1.0 g·cm−3, or 8.3 pounds per gallon). Furthermore, it is biodegradable and reclaimable, and may be recycled, which is important in view of its high cost (about $4,000 per barrel in 2001).[62] Alkali formates are safe to handle and do not damage the producing formation or downhole metals as their corrosive alternative, high-density brines (such as zinc bromide ZnBr2 solutions),sometimes do; they also require less cleanup and disposal costs.[6]


Finish Stone Siding
fibroid uterine
Back to top Go down
View user profile
 
Petroleum exploration
View previous topic View next topic Back to top 
Page 1 of 1
 Similar topics
-
» The quest for a co-op space exploration game
» Testors Plastic/Rubber Cement Glue?
» Overdose - An exploration of the dark mind of Theodore Martin
» PCG Taniquetil: Valar Class Exploration Vessel
» New update June 18 v1.22

Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum
Gentendo :: Other :: General Discussion-
Jump to: